Petfood Forum Guide - 2018 - 12
See the separate Schedule of Events and Floor Plan brochure for times for the student paper oral presentations.
Therefore, it was the objective of this project to determine the effect of processing
parameters resulting from incorporating NG-DDG in extruded dog and cat foods.
Diets with >25 percent plant protein sources [corn gluten meal (CGM), soybean
meal (SBM) and next generation-distillers dried grains (NG-DDG)] were produced.
Difference in mass between protein sources was made up with corn starch. Diets
were formulated to be isonutritional and meet nutritional requirements of both dogs
and cats. Experimental diets were mixed a nd split into three equal batches for replication and extruded over three days (day as replicate) using a single screw extruder.
Processing parameters and kibble samples were collected every 20 minutes. Kibbles
were evaluated for physical dimensions and texture.
The NG-DDG kibbles were more dense (0.5537g/L; P<0.05) than CGM kibbles
(0.476g/L), with SBM intermediate (0.5039g/L). The NG-DDG kibbles had a
smaller diameter (P<0.05) than CGM or SBM kibbles (5.18 vs. average 5.63mm),
and lower expansion ratio (P<0.05) than SBM (2.62 vs. 3.47mm/mm2) with
CGM intermediate (3.13mm/mm2). The NG-DDG required a smaller (P<0.05)
restriction valve opening (40 percent), which increased (P0.05) in hardness or
toughness of kibbles between treatments. Possibly due to lower levels of starch,
NG-DDG did not expand as well and required increased resistance and die pressure to
create similar product dimensions to CGM and SBM. However, there was no difference in water or energy to create kibbles, indicating the process could be managed
to produce similar products.
Spencer Smith is a graduate research assistant at Kansas State University originally
from Overland Park, Kansas, USA. She is currently working on her Master of Science
degree in the Pet Food program studying under Dr. Greg Aldrich. She received her
Bachelor of Science in Agriculture from Kansas State University with an emphasis
on monogastric nutrition. Her M.S. research has focused on the use of plant-based
proteins such as corn gluten meal, soybean meal and distillers dried grain in dry dog
and cat foods. Smith will graduate in May of 2019, and then hopes to pursue a
career in product development.
Sensory and volatile compound analysis of extruded sorghum
Gongshun Yang*; Center for Sensory Analysis and Consumer Behavior,
Kansas State University; firstname.lastname@example.org
There is a continuous increase in pet food companies and their products, but the
majority of their brands contain carbohydrates from grains. Only a limited number of
brands of pet food use sorghum in formulation. This research focused on the sensory
attributes of sorghum and volatile compounds in seven extruded dog food samples
with a primary purpose of developing a more sustainable pet food by using sorghum
as the main carbohydrate source.
Descriptive sensory analysis was used to determine appearance and aroma attributes. A
total of five highly trained panelists evaluated 10g of pet food for each sample by using
a scale from 0 to 15. Furthermore, gas chromatography was used for studying the
volatile aroma compounds extracted using the headspace-solid phase microextraction
(HS-SPME) method. In total 16 sensory attributes were evaluated in these samples,
and 12 of these manifested significant differences. Appearance attributes Brown,
Porous, Fibrous and Color presented differences among these seven samples, and
aroma attributes Vitamin, Barnyard, Liver, Carboard, Hay-like and Toasted were different
among the samples. The other four attributes evaluated were Musty/Dusty, Grain,
2018 Petfood Forum
Oxidized Oil and Fish Oil aroma. A total of 20 volatile compounds were detected, and
seven of them could be found in all seven samples. These volatile compounds were Butanedial, Pentanal, Hexanal, 5-methyl hexanal, 2-pentyl furan, and Propanoic acid. The
other 13 volatile compounds, which were 3-Carene, 1-Butanol, 3-methyl-, 1-Octen-3-ol,
tetrahydrofuran, 2-Butanone, 2-methylbutanal, Butanoic acid, 3-Furaldehyde, Pentanol,
2,3-Octanedione, Acetic acid and Furfural, were variated among the samples.
This research helps understand the sensory and volatile properties of extruded pet
food and indicates potential ways to improve sorghum formulation. Further research
should help determine whether more sustainable formulations provide similar
digestive and nutritional quality to animals.
Gongshun Yang is a graduate student in the Center of Sensory Analysis and Consumer Behavior at Kansas State University.
Descriptive sensory and volatiles composition evaluation of
dry cat food manufactured with different gains
Huizi Yu*; Kansas State University; email@example.com
Grain sorghum is an underutilized crop, especially for value-added applications such
as food for humans and pets, due to the prevalent misconceptions of sorghum
related to bitter taste and astringency caused by tannins. This study was designed to
test the above hypotheses in relation to use of sorghum in dry extruded cat food. A
total of eight dry cat foods produced with rice, corn, and three grinding levels (0.5,
1.0 and 1.6) of red or white sorghum were compared by using descriptive sensory
analysis and Headspace-Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.
Significant differences among the eight cat food samples were found on appearance
attributes of brown, fibrous and texture/mouthfeel attributes of fracturability and
gritty. No significant difference was found in terms of aroma and flavor attributes.
The volatile compounds composition of the eight dry cat foods were found similar,
thirty aromatic compounds tentatively identified and semi-quantified. The red and
white sorghum with grinding level of 1.0 were found to be closest to rice and corn in
terms of sensory characteristics.
This study provided scientific evidence in using grain sorghum as a promising ingredient to replace rice and corn without impact on sensory perception. This result gave
guides on the focus (texture and mouth-feel related product perceptions) for future
sorghum cat food formula optimization.
Huizi Yu is a PhD student in Sensory & Consumer Behavior Science at Kansas State
The evaluation legume seed and vegetable source protein quality
by a chick growth assay
Natalie Booth*, Greg Aldrich, Spencer Smith; Kansas State University;
Plant proteins may be a source of novel ingredients in pet foods. The objective
of this study was to evaluate the protein quality and functionality of new protein
sources through laboratory analysis and a chick growth assay.
Following crude protein and amino acid analysis experimental diets were