Petfood Forum Guide - 2018 - 10
See the separate Schedule of Events and Floor Plan brochure for times for the student paper oral presentations.
ORAL PRESENTATIONS ABSTRACTS
Soybean hulls as a dietary fiber source in canine and feline diets
Katelyn Detweiler*, Gary Davenport, Maria Godoy; University of Illinois at
Pets have become an integral part of the family, with approximately 89.7 million
pet dogs and 94.2 million pet cats in US homes (APPA, 2018). As a result,
owners have developed a strong bond with their pets and are seeking ways to
increase the health and longevity of their pets. This has caused a renewed interest
in dietary fibers in companion animal diets to mirror their own health practices.
Soybean hulls (SBH) are a readily available and competitively priced fiber source;
however, they are underutilized in canine and feline nutrition. Therefore, two
studies were conducted to evaluate the use of SBH as a dietary fiber in canine
and feline diets.
Four diets were formulated with either SBH, beet pulp (BP) or cellulose (CL) as
the main source of dietary fiber (15 percent total dietary fiber), with the last diet
formulated with no supplemental fiber (NF). All animal procedures were approved
by the University of Illinois Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Both
studies were replicated 4x4 Latin square designs and each period consisted
of 14d, with 10d of diet adaptation followed by 4d of total fecal and urine
collections. At the end of each period, a blood sample was collected from each
animal and analyzed for serum chemistry. All data were analyzed using the Mixed
Models procedure of SAS version 9.4. Food was offered twice daily and fed to
maintain body weight. The first study included eight adult female beagles. Food
intake (g/d) on a dry matter basis (DMB) did not differ among treatments. Fecal
score was lower in dogs fed CL in contrast with the other dietary treatments.
As-is and DM fecal output did not differ among dogs fed the three fiber diets.
Soybean hulls did not have a negative effect on apparent total tract macronutrient
digestibilities and were similar to the other two fiber diets. There was an observed
beneficial shift in fermentative end-products in dogs fed SBH as short chain-fatty
acids increased while putrefactive compounds decreased in comparison to dogs
fed CL and NF.
In the second study, eight adult male cats were used. Similar to the dogs, there
were no negative effects on food intake or fecal quality in cats fed SBH. As-is
fecal output did not differ in cats fed BP or SBH and, when expressed on a DMB,
fecal output did not differ between fiber treatments. Additionally, SBH did not negatively impact apparent total tract macronutrient digestibilities. There were shifts
in fermentative end-products; however, they were not as stark in comparison to
the canine study. All animals remained healthy throughout both studies.
In conclusion, SBH resulted in similar apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility when compared to BP and CL, fiber sources widely used in commercial pet
foods. Therefore, SBH appear to be a viable and potential source of functional
dietary fiber in canine and feline diets.
Katelyn Detweiler successfully defended her master's thesis in the Department of
Animal Sciences at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She is advised
by Dr. Maria R. C. de Godoy. She previously earned her bachelor's degree in
Animal Sciences from the University of Illinois. Throughout her master's program,
Detweiler assisted in many projects and presented her research at various conferences. She was a Jonathan Baldwin Turner fellow throughout her program.
2018 Petfood Forum
Evaluation of the efficacy of chemical treatments to control
Janak Dhakal*, Greg Aldrich, Carl Knueven; Kansas State University;
Rendered chicken fat is used to coat pet foods to increase energy density and to
enhance palatability. This occurs after the established kill step. Sodium bisulfate
(SBS) and lactic acid (LA) are food-grade antimicrobials that have been shown to
control Salmonella in a variety of food products. However, their applications via
fat or flavoring have not been evaluated for the purpose of Salmonella mitigation
in pet food. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of SBS, LA and
their combination against Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 14028) in tryptic soy
broth as one phase in a flavor/fat coating system.
Minimum Inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of these chemicals were determined
using the microdilution method in tryptic soy broth using a 96 wells microtiter
plate. The MIC of SBS and LA were determined individually and at different combinations against S. typhimurium (~106 log). The microtiter plates were incubated
at 37°C for 24h before making the MIC observation. Minimum inhibitory concentration of both SBS and LA against S. typhimurium were found to be 0.5 percent.
When the combination of two chemicals were used, 0.1 percent of SBS and
0.1 percent of LA, and 0.05 percent SBS and 0.15 percent LA led to inhibition
of Salmonella (~106 log) upon overnight incubation in microtiter plates. Thus,
demonstrating lower MIC doses for each and synergism when combined.
Research to follow will challenge Salmonella using the same sequence of combinations of these two chemicals in rendered chicken fats. Rendered chicken fat can
become contaminated with Salmonella from residual water encountered during
storage and transport. This study suggests that inclusion of SBS and (or) LA could
potentially reduce Salmonella typhimurium in chicken fat. The combination of the
two chemicals showed synergistic effect.
Janak Dhakal is a native of Nepal. He completed his Bachelor of Science degree in
Veterinary Sciences and his Master of Science degree in Animal Biotechnology from
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, India (2004-2012).
He moved to the United States in 2013 to pursue his PhD in Poultry Science at
Mississippi State University (2013-2016). His expertise and work areas are food
safety and microbiology. During his PhD, he explored the effect antimicrobial stresses
have on Salmonella and its biofilm forming ability and thermal tolerance. He recently
joined the Feed Microbiology and Toxicology lab in Grain Science Department at
Kansas State University as a Post-Doc. Here, he and Dr. Greg Aldrich work together
to find various approaches and strategies to control Salmonella in pet foods. In
addition to his experience as researcher he has guest lectured numerous classes on
topics related to food processing and food safety. He has presented over a half-dozen
scientific talks at various regional and international forums.
The effects of storage conditions on protein
oxidation of rendered by-products
Carl Frame*, Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Mariana Rossoni Serao; Iowa State
The use of rendered by-product in pet food is widespread and provides a cost-effective source of protein. These sources experience extreme temperatures to ensure
stability before being incorporated into the pet food chain. Over the years, interest in